Digital Restoration and Preservation of Deteriorated Mural Paintings by Advanced 3D Measurement Technologies


  • Rodica-Mariana Ion ICECHIM, Research Group Evaluation and Conservation of Research Group, 202 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, Romania; University of Valahia, Materials Engineering Dept., 13 Aleia Sinaia, Targoviste
  • Dan Adrian Vasile ICECHIM, Research Group Evaluation and Conservation of Research Group, 202 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, Romania



Restoration, Preservation, Mural Paintings


The external factors from nature are responsible for weathering of different monuments and cause considerable deterioration of Old mural Paintings. This paper presents a virtual reconstruction scheme useful for subsequent restoration processes of the degraded versions of the murals from Matia Loggia, Corvins’Castle, Hunedoara, Romania. The analysis of materials and techniques and the possible deterioration mechanisms are discussed, too, correlated with the colour digital photography and mapping of visible painting degraded area were conducted.


Adriano, P., Silva, A. S., Veiga, R., Mirão, J., & Candeias, A. (2009). Microscopic characterisation of old mortars from the Santa Maria Church in Évora. Materials characterization, 60 (7), 610-620.

Akyuz, S., Akyuz, T., Basaran, S., Bolcal, C., & Gulec, A. (2007). FT-IR and micro- Raman spectroscopic study of decorated potteries from VI and VII century BC, excavated in ancient Ainos–Turkey. Journal of molecular structure, 834 , 150-153.

Artioli, G., & Angelini, I. (2010). Scientific methods and cultural heritage: an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science : Oxford University Press.

Bersani, D., Lottici, P., Virgenti, S., Mora, A., Ospitali, F., Salvioli-Mariani, E., . . . Pedrelli, C. (2009). Micro-Raman and SEM-EDS investigation of medieval pottery. The IV Conference of Raman in art and archaeology.

Bodochi, I. (2008). Castelul Corvinilor în secolul al XVII-lea (1). Corviniana XII, 207– 232.

Bogdan, C. (1 970). Contribuţii arheologice la cunoaşterea evoluţiei Castelului Corvineştilor de la Hunedoara. BMI, 39 (2), 18-25.

Burgio, L., & Clark, R. J. (2001). Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 57 (7), 1491-1521.

Cardell, C., Guerra, I., Romero-Pastor, J., Cultrone, G., & Rodriguez-Navarro, A. (2009). Innovative analytical methodology combining micro-x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-based mineral maps, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to characterize archeological artifacts. Analytical Chemistry, 81 (2), 604-611.

Casadio, F., Daher, C., & Bellot-Gurlet, L. (2017). Raman spectroscopy of cultural heritage materials: overview of applications and new frontiers in instrumentation, sampling modalities, and data processing Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage (pp. 161-211): Springer.

Castro, K., Sarmiento, A., Martínez-Arkarazo, I., Madariaga, J. M., & Fernández, L. A. (2008). Green copper pigments biodegradation in cultural heritage: from malachite to moolooite, thermodynamic modeling, X-ray fluorescence, and Raman evidence. Analytical Chemistry, 80 (11), 4103-4110.

De Faria, D., Venâncio Silva, S., & De Oliveira, M. (1997). Raman microspectroscopy of some iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. Journal of Raman spectroscopy, 28 (11), 873-878.

Derrick, M., Stulik, D., & Landry, J. (1999). Infrared spectroscopy in conservation science, Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust .

Eastaugh, N., Walsh, V., Chaplin, T., & Siddall, R. (2007). Pigment compendium: a dictionary of historical pigments : Routledge Ed.

Genestar, C., & Pons, C. (2005). Earth pigments in painting: characterisation and differentiation by means of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS microanalysis. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 382 (2), 269-274.

Ion, R.-M., Iancu, L., Grigorescu, R.-M., Tincu, S., Vasilievici, G., Ion, N., . . . Stirbescu, R. M. (2018). Arhaeometric investigations on ceramic materials from Hunedoara-the court area. Journal of Science and Arts, 18 (2), 471-480.

Ion, R.-M., Iancu, L., Turcanu Carutiu, D., Schroder, V., Tincu, S., Roman, C., . . . Dulama, I. D. (2018). Traditional building materials and modern restoration products identified at the painted Matia-fresco Loggia, Corvins' Castle, Romania. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts.

Ion, R.-M., Nyokong, T., Nwahara, N., Suica-Bunghez, I.-R., Iancu, L., Teodorescu, S., Grigorescu, R. M. (2018). Wood preservation with gold hydroxyapatite system. Heritage Science, 6 (1), 37.

Ion, R., Iancu, L., Grigorescu, R., Carutiu-Turcanu, D., Tincu, S., Ion, N., . . . Stirbescu, R. (2018). Arhaeometric Concepts and Methods of Intervention on Historical Monument Buildings. The Case of the Corvins’ Castle. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering.

Ion, R. M. (2016). Materiale de Istorie şi Muzeografie XXX . Bucuresti: MUZEUL MUNICIPIULUI BUCUREȘTI.

Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., & Bisbikou, K. (2000). Investigation of the technology of historic mortars. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 1 (1), 45-58.

Santamarina-Campos, V., Carabal-Montagud, M. Á., de Miguel-Molina, M., & De Miguel-Molina, B. (2017). Conservation, Tourism, and Identity of Contemporary Community Art: A Case Study of Felipe Seade’s Mural" Allegory to Work” : CRC Press.




How to Cite

Ion, R.-M., & Adrian Vasile, D. (2020). Digital Restoration and Preservation of Deteriorated Mural Paintings by Advanced 3D Measurement Technologies. Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage, 10, 207–212.